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Entrepreneurial Capitalism & Innovation:
History of Computer Communications
1968 - 1988
By James Pelkey

This history is organized by three co-evolving market sectors and also standards making.
An overview of the schema is presented in the introduction.

Ch. 1: Emergence
Ch. 3: Competition
Ch. 5: Market Order
Ch. 11: Adaptation

Ch. 2: Vision
Ch. 4: Working Example
Ch. 6: Diffusion
Ch. 7: Emergence
Ch 8: Completion
Ch. 10: Market Order

Ch. 9: Creation

Ch. 12: Emergence


Micom Organizational Relationships


Network Graph

Paragraph numbers are keys to accompanying network graph.

1. American Data System (ADS) discovers (1969) Rockwell International. Leads to modem technology being transferred from Rockwell to ADS. Rockwell also invests in ADS.

2. Modem problems, the 1970 recession in buying demand and management changes result in Rockwell bankrupting ADS in 1973.

3. During 1971 financial problems, ADS tells Codex of Rockwell. Codex then works with Rockwell to create first 9600 baud semiconductor implementation. Rockwell sells modem chips to the Japanesse fax market, benefiting from the future boom in fax sales, and Codex becomes clear modem marketshare leader.

4. Bill Norred, a founder and technical leader of ADS, buys technology rights and inventory from ADS (1973) with Case Ltd financial assistance and incorporates Micom.

5. ADS has relationship with Case Ltd which gets transferred to Micom. Roger Evans, the second largest management shareholder in Micom, joins Micom and Bill Norred from Case (1975). Evans has vision of statistical multiplexor.

6. Micom sells to Datran, which when it fails forces Micom to take venture capital (1975). Paradyne is also impacted by the failure of Datran.

7. Micom tries to raise money from or be bought by Codex and Vadic (1975).

8. After Micom introduces what will be the best selling statistical multiplexor in 1978, Micom buys Rockwell modems through UDS with the permission of Codex. Codex and UDS are now owned by Motorola.

9. In 1978, Micom sells to the same manufacturing representatives as does Vadic. They work together. Micom learns of stocking representative innovation from Vadic. Micom implements a stocking representative system to great advantage.

10. Micom sells statistical multiplexors to Codex, Paradyne and Milgo; the three leaders in high-end modems.

11. Micom tries to buy dial-up modems from Concord Data Systems (1982).

12. Micom buys Interlan (1985) for its local area networking technology. Now has to compete in Networking market-structure.

13. Micom signs joint service agreement with DEC in 1986. DEC will service Micom's Data PBX.

14. Micom(Interlan) signs National Semiconductor to sell LAN boards in 1987.

15. Micom buys Spectrum Digital (1987) for $25 million for its T-1 multiplexor technology. Now has to compete in Internetworking market-structure.

16. Micom(Interlan) signs joint development agreements with Novell and Banyan (1987).

17. Micom(Interlan) signs OEM agreement with Prime Computers (1987). Prime will sell Micom(Interlan) terminal servers.

18. Micom(Interlan) signs licensing agreement with DEC (1987)

19. Micom(Spectrum Digital) signs OEM agreement with Paradyne (1987). Paradyne will sell Micom(Spectrum Digital) T-1 multiplexors and Micom will sell Paradyne lease line modems.

20. Micom(Interlan) signs Synoptics to sell Ethernet LAN boards (1988).

21. Micom is bought by Odyssey Partners for $301 million (1988).

22. Micom sells Spectrum Digital to Telematics for $9.7 million (1988).