Custom Search

A HISTORY OF COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS: 1968 -1988

see Market Sectors Home

Explore by Market Sectors

COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS encompasses all means of interconnecting computers and computer peripherals for the effective interchange of data and thus information. For the purposes of this historical reconstruction, computer communications will be limited to the emergence of how computers were first interconnected using the telephone networks, then how computers were interconnected locally using networks, and finally how networks of computers were interconnected. These three developments are labeled Data Communications, Networking and Internetworking. To be observed will be the evolution of ideas by engineers and entrepreneurs, into the creation of new firms, the chaos of market competition and the eventual emergence of market order.

Explore by Market Sector

The Data Communications market sector consists of...

firms that innovate products to interconnect computers and peripherals using the telephone networks. Up through 1968, AT&T, then a regulated monopoly, suppressed competition by preventing the attachment of foreign devices to its telephone network. But in that same year, a series of regulatory and technological changes led to the weakening of their hold on the market, opening the way to the emergence of Data Communications. By the late 1970’s, many of the leading Data Communication firms will attempt to compete in the then emerging Networking market. A few years later, in the mid-1980’s, the Data Communication firms will be further challenged by the emergence of the Internetworking market.


THE DATA COMMUNICATION MARKET SECTOR
EVOLUTION OF THE DATA COMMUNICATIONS MARKET
Data Communications: Market Emergence 1956-1968 1
Data Communications: Market Competition 1968-1972 3
Data Communications: Market Order 1973-1979 5
Data Communications: Wide Area Networks 1979-1986 11
DATA COMMUNICATION FIRMS
PARTICIPATING IN THE NETWORKING MARKET
Micom: The DataPBX and IPO 1978-1981 7.14
Codex: The DataPBX 1978-1981 7.15
The Data Communication Competitors 1981-1982 8.12
The Data Communication Competitors 1983-1984 10.13
The Data Communication Competitors 1985-1986 10.29
DATA COMMUNICATION FIRMS
PARTICIPATING IN THE INTERNETWORKING MARKET
The Data Communication Competitors 1987-1988 12.14
INDIVIDUALS INTERVIEWED IN DATA COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR
MARKET RESEARCH: DATA, FORECAST AND ANALYSIS

Data Communication Firm Interrelationships

Data Communications Sector Income Statements

The Networking market sector consists of...

firms that innovate products to interconnect computers and peripherals into a network. This need did not emerge until corporations both had, and wanted to share, multiple computers and peripherals. And while some need to interconnect mainframes from various vendors did exist, it was not until corporations began using minicomputers that the need for networking became widely embraced. At first the leading firms of Data Communications introduced a category of products called DataPBXs. These products represented incremental innovations of their multiplexer technologes and mimicked the architechture of the prevailing voice PBX switches. The technologies that would eventually dominate the market were an evolution, or diffusion, and refinement of packet switching technolohgies. This historical reconstruction follows the path from the first thinkings of Paul Baran and Donald Davies through a working Arpanet to the innovation of Ethernet led by Xerox PARC's Bob Metcalfe and the subsequent creation of international LAN standards.

THE NETWORKING MARKET SECTOR
EVOLUTION OF THE NETWORKING MARKET
Networking: Vision and Packet Switching 1959-1968 2
Networking: Arpanet 1969-1972 4
Networking: Diffusion 1972-1979 6
Networking: Emergence 1979-1981 7
Networking: Market Competition 1981-1983 8
Standards: An Enabling Institution 1979-1984 9
Networking: Market Order - LANs 1983-1986 10
NETWORKING FIRMS
PARTICIPATING IN THE INTERNETWORKING MARKET
The  Networking Competitors: 1987-1988 12.19
INDIVIDUALS INTERVIEWED IN THE NETWORKING SECTOR
MARKET RESEARCH: DATA, FORECAST AND ANALYSIS
Networking Sector Income Statements  
Networking Market Structure Analysis  
Selection Pressures in Networking  
Analysis of LAN vs Data PBX Innovation  

The Internetworking market sector consists of...

the firms that innovate products to interconnect computer networks. This need did not emerge until corporations both had, and wanted to interconnect, computers and peripherals over multiple networks. Two driving forces were necessary: the growth in use of computer networks and the ability of corporations to interconnect network data taffic at high speeds over their own Wide Area Networks.

The emergence of the Internetworking market differed radically from Data Communications and Networking for it was driven primarily by the need to interconnect networks not computers. It, therefore, represents endogenous economic growth of computer communications.

The firms of both Data Communications and Networking had to respond to the emergence of internetworking - few did so sucessfully.

THE INTERNETWORKING MARKET SECTOR
EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNETWORKING MARKET
Internetworking: LANs over WANs 1983-1988 12.25
INDIVIDUALS INTERVIEWED IN THIS SECTOR
MARKET RESEARCH: DATA, FORECAST AND ANALYSIS
Internetworking Sector Income Statements  
 

see Market Sectors Home